Sunday, August 16, 2015

How It Works!

One trillion dollars U.S. market alone. A real figure to keep you reading. See how we get there.

This machine extracts fresh water and electricity from the ocean using a combination of cold ocean water and wind power.  Peak Water; What We're Going To Do About It was the first blog and is a general description of this technology. Basically, cold ocean water is pumped through a heat exchanger in the top of a tower. Ambient air ducted through the tower powers a turbine. Condensed water is extracted from the heat exchanger. Further detail about unit size versus quantity of water and electricity produced is provided below.

This technology is patent pending. The numbers talked about here are theoretical but give a sound starting point to what can be expected of the real thing. A small prototype would (1.) demonstrate that it works and (2.) verify the quantities of water and electricity produced. The purpose of this blog is to attract interest in financing this important step. The ultimate goal is to have enough of these built and working to get back on track for planetary CO2 emission goals and keep our climate from reaching a tipping point beyond which it will be hard to recover - and to make billions of dollars. Full disclosure. Here is a picture of the device for handy reference while I talk about it.

fresh water, power, free from ocean, next big thing, venture capital, best investment

We're going to assume the device pictured here is a 120 foot diameter cylinder about 700 feet tall with a 200 foot tall rectangular elbow on top of that. Four hundred feet is under water providing stability. It could be much smaller, but not much bigger. Also, we are going to assume the setting is the Gulf of Mexico where temperatures are warm and the air is humid (the hotter the surface environment, the better it works). The average wind speed is 18 mph, average temperature is 74.2 degrees F., and the average humidity is 60%.

We'll start at the top and work our way down. Because the wind collector is about 300 feet above the ocean's surface the wind is going to blow about 4 mph more on average. The elbow at the top gathers the wind. It is 200 feet tall and 120 feet wide. With the doors open, the wind-gathering area is about 60,000 sq. feet. This wind is squished into the top of the cylinder which has an area of 11,300 sq. feet. That is a ratio of 5.3 to 1. All that air is being scrunched up and forced down a vertical tube. With that ratio a 22  mph wind should become 117 mph going down this vertical tower. No, it does not. There's a lot of frictional losses. Some of the air backs up in the collection cone and spills out around the edges. It's a process that is estimated to be about 50% efficient. The air going into the top of the cylinder is only going 58 mph. It then goes through the heat exchanger. This is a specially designed heat exchanger to allow a large throughput of air with as little impediment as possible. Even so, it will reduce the air velocity by about 30%. Our 58 mph becomes 41 mph.

As the air leaves the exchanger it is much cooler (55 degrees F) and denser and begins to accelerate down in a reverse stack affect. As it drops the 200 feet to the wind turbine it gains another 15 mph to hit the turbine at 56 mph. Here's the link to input numbers to calculate the stack effect.

We will now calculate the wind power density at the turbine to find out how much energy we can extract. WPD=1/2 density of air x velocity of air cubed. In this case the wind power density works out to 19,309 watts per meter squared. Our turbine area is 11,300 ft sq. That converts to 1,050 square meters. The total watts is 1,050 x 19,309 = 20,274,450 watts or 20.2 MW (megawatts).

Water is easier to estimate but less accurate. That's because the math involved in determining how much water will condense out on the heat exchanger is very complex. But we can look at how much water is available and a realistic percentage of what we can extract.

We know the area of the heat exchanger and the velocity of air. The area is 11,300 square feet. The velocity is an average of the inlet 58 mph and the outlet 41 mph which is about 50 mph. That's about 3 billion cubic feet per hour.

There are .0094 pounds of water in a pound of air at 60% humidity. A pound of air at 74 degrees will take up about 13 cubic feet of volume. There are 230 million pounds of air going through the heat exchanger per hour. 230x.0094=2.162 so there are approximately 2.2 million pounds of water going through the exchanger per hour. That's 275,000 gallons of water per hour. Let's say we can get only 20 percent efficiency in removing this water. Fifty-five thousand gallons per hour times 24 equals 1,320,000 gallons of water per day. It's nearly half a billion gallons of water per year. Free (after capital costs). It would provide 170,000 households their average daily consumption of 80 gallons per day. If it were bottled and sold to the public at the current average price of $1.21 per gallon it would bring in close to $600,000,000 per year. But let's say only 8% was bottled and the rest pumped into the general water supply so that water brought in just $50,000,000 per year.

How much is our electricity worth? The average residential customer payed about 12.5 cents per kwh (kilowatt hour). We're producing about 200,000,000 kwh per year so that's about $22,300,000 dollars per year. If you are selling electricity to a utility company this amount will be somewhat less.

We now have combined possible revenues of $72,300,000 per year. How much did it cost to get there? Keep in mind this is a much simpler device than an offshore rig; even simpler than a cruise ship. A cruise ship costs about $2.50 a pound to fabricate. Let's figure we can get this built for $2.25. The unit as described above weighs about 7 million pounds. About $16 million. Transportation and anchorage $5 million. Twenty miles of cable and pipe to transport electricity and water at $1 million per mile = $20 million. Miscellaneous expenses of $2 million. That's a total of $43 million.

$72 minus $43 million leaves $29 million in profit the first year. Second year it will be $72 million minus $2 million in maintenance. Since there are offshore rigs out there over 40 years old, we can assume our simpler structure has at least a 40 year lifespan. The total revenue is $2.8 billion. And that is just one unit. Imagine 200 units in the Gulf of Mexico, 50 on the east coast of Florida and 150 off the south coast of California. Now we're talking a trillion dollar market in the U.S. alone. Now think of the Middle East, India, Pakistan, South America, South Africa, Philippines, and Australia. Another couple of trillion. Per year.

Now you know what I know. I am currently building test modules to pin down the numbers thrown about here. I would like to build a small working prototype. I am looking for the least awkward way to finance that prototype? Has anyone reading this developed similar sized projects? Incorporate? Kickstarter campaign? Venture Capital? Shark Tank? Your input would be helpful here. For more information, read my blog "Peak Water: New Technology Shows Promise".


Glen Hendrix